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Longstaff, J. S. (1996). Cognitive structures of kinesthetic space; Reevaluating Rudolf Laban’s choreutics in the context of spatial cognition and motor control. Ph.D. Thesis. London: City University, Laban Centre. (HTML Edition)

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Cognitive Structures of Kinesthetic Space
Reevaluating Rudolf Laban’s Choreutics In the Context of Spatial Cognition and Motor Control
[HTML EDITION]

Jeffrey Scott Longstaff

Submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

City University, London
Human Movement Studies, Laban Centre, London
September, 1996

1996 Jeffrey Scott Longstaff

Volume One
Text

Contents

Volume One


I. INTRODUCTION

18

 

I.10 Brief Historical Review of the Work of Rudolf Laban.
I.20 The Need for a Reevaluation of Choreutics.

18
 

.21 Components of Laban’s Study of Movement.
.22 Choreutics as Underdeveloped.

 
I.30 Summary and Conclusions of the Research.

21
 

.31 The Realm of Choreutic Study.
.32 Gradual Refinement of the Focus of this Research.
.33 Summary of the Reevaluation.

 



II. KINESTHETIC SPATIAL COGNITION: DEFINITIONS.

33

IIA. Kinesthesia.

34
 

IIA.10 Variety of Terminology and Working Definitions.

34
   

.11 Variety of Terms.
.12 Discussion.
.13 Working Definitions.

 
  IIA.20 Types of Kinesthetic Raw Data.

37
   

.21 Muscular Receptors.
.22 Tendon Receptors.
.23 Joint Receptors.
.24 Skin Receptors.
.25 Vestibular Receptors.
.26 Visual Receptors.
.27 Audio Receptors.
.28 Efferent Data.

 
  IIA.30 Deriving Kinesthetic Perceptions.

39
   

.31 Sense of Balance and Equilibrium.
.32 Senses of Self-motion and Limb-motion.
.33 Limb-position sense.
.34 Sense of Force and Exertion.

 
  IIA.40 Conclusions: Kinesthesia.

42


IIB. Kinesthetic Space.

43
 

IIB.10 Factor Spaces.
IIB.20 Physical, Environmental, Objective, Euclidean Spaces.

43
44
   

.21 Physical Space, Environmental Space, External Space.
.22 Extracorporeal, Extrapersonal Space.
.23 General Space.
.24 Euclidean Space.
.25 Cartesian Space.

 
  IIB.30 Perceptual-Motor Spaces.

45
   

.31 Sensory-Perceptual-Motor Space; Spatial Fields.
.32 Visual Space.
.33 Audio Space.
.34 Proprioceptive Space.
.35 Tactile Space.
.36 Thermal Space.
.37 Kinesthetic Space.
.38 Kinesphere (Kinetosphere, Strophosphere, Ergosphere).








47
 

IIB.40 Motor Spaces.

48
   

.41 Motor Space.
.42 Work Space, Reach Space.
.43 Movement Space.
.44 Grasping Space.
.45 Locomotor Space.
.46 Action Space.
.47 Body Space.
.48 Body Space Hierarchy.

 
  IIB.50 Mentally Represented Space.

52
   

.51 Imaginal Space, Conceptual Space, Represented Space.
.52 Personal Space.
.53 Extrapersonal Space.

 
  IIB.60 Conclusion: Kinesthetic Space.

54


IIC. Kinesthetic Spatial Cognition.

56
 

IIC.10 Spatial Cognition versus Verbal Cognition.
IIC.20 Spatial Information Processing.
IIC.30 Kinesthetic Spatial Cognition.

56
58
59
   

.31 Spatial Cognition.
.32 Body Movement as Cognitive.
.33 Kinesthetic Basis for Spatial Knowledge.
.34 Kinesthetic-Motor Mechanism for Perceptual Calibration.
.35 Kinesthetic-Motor Mechanism for Spatial Memory.
.36 Kinesthetic-Motor Basis for Cognition in General.


59
65
67
68
69
 

IIC.40 Conclusions: Kinesthetic Spatial Cognition.

74



III. COGNITIVE STRUCTURES OF KINESTHETIC SPACE.

75

IIIA. Systems of Reference.

76
 

IIIA.10 Egocentric vs Exocentric Reference Systems in Psychology

76
   

.11 General Distinctions.
.12 Developmental Progression.
.13 Ego/Exocentrism in Spatial Cognition.
.14 Egocentric/Exocentric Translation.
.15 Misperceptions of Egocentric and Exocentric Directions.
.16 Field-dependence, Field-independence.

 
  IIIA.20 Labanotation and Choreutic Reference Systems.

85
   

.21 Constant Cross of Axes Reference System.
.22 Fixed Points Reference System.
.23 Line of Travel Reference System.
.24 Standard Cross of Axes Reference System.
.25 Body Cross of Axes Reference System.
.26 Location of “Centre”.
.27 Divided Fronts.
.28 Labanotation Symbols for Reference Systems.

 
  IIIA.30 Conclusions: Reference Systems.

90


IIIB. Location Code.

91
 

IIIB.10 Spatial Positioning Tasks.

91
   

.11 Location versus Distance Recall.
.12 Switched-Limbs in Positioning Tasks.

 
  IIIB.20 Mass-spring Model for Motor Control.

93
   

.21 Mass-spring System.
.22 Agonist / Antagonist Equilibrium Points.
.23 Equifinality.
.24 Sensory Feedback Required for Fine Control.
.25 Virtual Positions and Virtual Trajectories.
.26 Multi-joint Mass-spring.
.27 “Location” as Joint Angle or Distal Member Locus.




96

97
 

IIIB.30 Trajectory Formation.

100
   

.31 Path Segments, Curvature Peaks.
.32 Deriving Curved Paths from Straight Strokes.
.33 Polylinear Trajectories.
.34 Locomotor Trajectories.

 
  IIIB.40 Choreutic Peaks and Phases.
IIIB.50 Location Code in other Motor Tasks.

102
103
   

.51 Motor Control of Handwriting.
.52 Motor Control of Speech Articulations.
.53 Stimulus - Response Compatibility.
.54 Spatial Motor Preprogramming.


105
 

IIIB.60 Coordinative Structures; Muscle Collectives; Kinematic Chains.
IIIB.70 Location Effects in Visual and Verbal Memory.

109
112
   

.71 Automatic Processing of Location Information.
.72 Locus-specific Memory Storage.
.73 Location-based Mnemonic Strategies.

 
  IIIB.80 Conclusions: Location Code.

113


IIIC. Map-like Images of Spatial Knowledge.

114
 

IIIC.10 Cognitive Maps.

 
    .11 Equiavailable, Path Free, Spatial Knowledge.
.12 Locations, Landmarks, Reference Points.
.13 Hierarchy of Map-like Spaces.
 
  IIIC.20 Kinespheric Image as a Map, Grid, Net, Scaffolding, etc.
IIIC.30 Cognitive Structures of the Kinespheric Net.

124
126
   

.31 Cartesian Coordinates and Planes.
.32 Spheric Shape of Kinesthetic Space.
.33 Planar Networks.
.34 Choreutic Conception of Polyhedral Nets.




130
     

.34a Octahedron and cubic nets.
.34b Icosahedral and dodecahedral nets.
.34c Tetrahedral net.

 
  IIIC.40 Conclusions: Map-like Images.

133


IIID. Symmetrical Transformations.

134
 

IIID.10 Necessity of Symmetrical Transformations.
IIID.20 Varieties of Symmetry.

134
136
   

.21 Body Transfer.
.22 Temporal Transformations: Velocity and Duration.
.23 Translation Symmetry.
.24 Size Scaling: Reduce / Enlarge.
.25 Combined Body Transfer, Translation, and Size Scaling.
.26 Reflection Symmetry.
.27 Rotational Symmetry.
.28 Retrogradation.

 
  IIID.30 Specifying Symmetry Operations in Cognition Research.
IIID.40 Explicit Studies of Symmetry in Dance.
IIID.50 Symmetry within Choreutics.
IIID.60 Proposed Notation Symbols for Symmetrical Transformations.
IIID.70 Conclusions: Symmetrical Transformations.

152
154
156
159
162


IV. REEVALUATING CHOREUTICS.

163

IVA. Prototype / Deflection Hypothesis.

164
 

IVA.10 “Directions” and Direction-Symbols.

164
   

.11 Directional Lines versus Directional Points.
.12 Limb Orientation versus Line of Motion.
.13 Labanotation Direction Symbols.
.14 Vector Symbols from Choreographie (Laban, 1926).
.15 Equality of Parallel Directions.

 
  IVA.20 “Directions” as Conceived in Choreutics.

169
   

.21 Undifferentiated Spherical Conception of Space.
.22 Dimensions.


169
     

.22a Three Dimensions.
.22b Dimensional cross and octahedral network.

 
    .23 Diagonals.

171
     

.23a Pure diagonal directions.
.23b Diagonal cross and cubic network.

 
    .24 Diameters, Primary Deflections.

173
     

.24a Primary deflections, Square Cartesian planes.
.24b Modified diameters, Rectangle Cartesian planes.
.24c Diametral crosses; Polyhedral networks.
.24d Notation of Diametral Directions.

 
    .25 Inclinations, Secondary and Tertiary Deflections.

178
     

.25a Flat, steep, and suspended inclinations.
.25b Secondary deflections, Cuboctahedral inclinations.
.25c Tertiary deflections, Icosahedral inclinations.
.25d Slopes of secondary and tertiary deflections.

 


 

IVA.30 Prototype (Schema) Theory in Psychology.

182
   

.31 General Statements.
.32 Psychological Effects Indicative of Prototypes.


185
     

.32a Prototypes perceived and recalled fastest.
.32b Prototypes learned first.
.32c Prototypes recalled first.
.32d Prototypes recalled more accurately.
.32e Prototypes serve as reference points.
.32f Perceptual/memory bias toward the prototype.

 
  IVA.40 Prototype / Deflection Hypothesis in Choreutics.

186
   

.41 General Statements.
.42 Dimensions and Diagonals as Spatial Prototypes.
.43 Dimensions and Diagonals as Dynamic Prototypes.
.44 Choreutic Education Organised According to Prototypes.
.45 Prototypes in Labanotation.

 
  IVA.50 Prototypical Angles and Orientations in Spatial Cognition

191
   

.51 Prototypes in Language.
.52 Oblique Effect.
.53 Perceptual Bias Toward Vertical / Horizontal Orientations.
.54 Prototypical Angles.
.55 Balance System of a Figure.

 
  IVA.60 Prototypes and Deflections in Ballet.

198
   

.61 Ballet Facing.
.62 Ballet Limb Orientation.
.63 Ballet Conceptual Grids.
.64 Deflected Ballet.

 



 

IVA.70 Anatomical Constraints.

201
   

.71 Choreutic Deflections from Anatomical Constraints.
.72 Range of Articulation at Single Joints.
.73 Oblique Joint Structure.
.74 Oblique Muscular Lines of Pull.

 
  IVA.80 Choreutic Organic Deflections.

207
   

.81 Deflected Ballet Foot Positions.
.82 Deflected Dimensions into Diameters.
.83 Deflected Arm Circles.
.84 Overshooting Dimensional Locations.
.85 Dimensional Scale Deflects into Inclinational A-Scale.
.86 Infinite Deflections.

 
  IVA.90 Ergonomic Shape of the Workspace.
IVA.100 Conclusions: Prototype / Deflection Hypothesis.
IVA.110 Experiment: Probing for Kinespheric Reference Points.

217
219
220
   

.111 Reference Points.
.112 Labanotation Direction Symbols as Kinespheric Stimuli.
.113 Method.
.114 Procedure.
.115 Results and Discussion.
.116 Conclusions: Kinespheric Reference Points.

 



IVB. Categories of Kinespheric Form.

229
 

IVB.10 Introduction.

229
   

.11 The Need for Kinespheric Categories in Psychology.
.12 Paths, Poses, and Virtual Forms.
.13 Linear, Planar, and Plastic Forms.

 
  IVB.20 Kinespheric Poses.

233
   

.21 Pin-, Wall-, Ball-, and Screw-shaped Poses.
.22 Straight, Curved, and Angled Poses.
.23 Arabesque and Attitude Poses.
.24 Poses Arranged in Geometric Networks.
.25 Counterdirections and Chords.
.26 Kinespheric Pose Primitives: The Body Segment.
.27 Gestalt Principles of Higher-Order Perceptual Groupings.

 
  IVB.30 Kinespheric Paths

239
   

.31 Generalised Inwards / Outwards Movement.
.32 Path Hierarchy: Straight, Curved, Twisted, Rounded, etc.
.33 Choreutic Natural Sequences.



249
     

.33a Zones and Super-zones of the Limbs.
.33b Defense Sequence.
.33c Attack Sequence.
.33d Three-part Knot.
.33e Lemniscate.
.33f Crawl-like Movement.
.33g Axis, Equator, and Hybrid.

 
    .34 Kinespheric Paths as Topological.
.35 Method for Deriving a Taxonomy of Kinespheric Paths.

258
261
 

IVB.40 Conclusions: Categories of Kinespheric Form.
IVB.50 Experiment: Subjective Organisation in Kinesthetic Recall.

265
265
   

.51 Clustering and Subjective Organisation
.52 Prototypical Members of Subjective Categories.
.53 Paradigm for Kinesthetic Spatial Cognition Research.
.54 Method.
.55 Procedure.
.56 Results.
.57 Characteristics of Subjective-units.
.58 Discussion and Directions for Future Research.
.59 Summary: Subjective Organisation in Kinesthetic Recall.

 



V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS.

287


Contents
Volume Two

Appendix I.

Research Proposal and Transfer of Registration to Ph.D.

16

Appendix II. 

Kinesthesia.

20

Appendix III. 

Spatial versus Verbal Cognition.

53

Appendix IV. 

Spatial Information Processing.

67

Appendix V.

Varieties of “Spatial” Stimuli.

75

Appendix VI. 

Kinesthetic-Motor Mechanism in Spatial Adaptation.

84

Appendix VII.

Coordinative Structures.

88

Appendix VIII

Terminology for Cartesian Planes and Dimensions

95

Appendix IX.

Analysis of “Vector Symbols” as used in Choreographie.

100

Appendix X.

Angles between Dimensions and Diameters.

109

Appendix XI

Range of Articulation at Single Joints.

113

Appendix XII.

Deflected Ballet.

119

Appendix XIII.

Reference Points in Kinesthetic Space: Stimuli and Data.

128

Appendix XIV.

Variability of Practice Hypothesis in Schema Theory.

140

Appendix XV.

Virtual Forms.

144

Appendix XVI

Method for Deriving a Taxonomy of Kinespheric Paths.

159

Appendix. XVII.

Subjective Organisation in Kinesthetic Recall: Raw Data.

173
     

Reference List.

187






List of Figures
Volume One
     

IIB-1.

“Joint space” as a graph of joint angles.

43
     

IIIA-1.

Labanotation symbols for reference systems.

86

IIIA-2.

Labanotation for standard cross of axes with divided front.

88

IIIA-3.

Labanotation for body cross of axes with divided front.

89
     

IIIB-1.

Biceps as a spring supporting the mass of the forearm.

94

IIIB-2.

Planar positioning apparatus.

98

IIIB-3.

Deriving a curved path from a polygonal representation.

100

IIIB-4.

Relative timing of four motors in mechanical handwriting.

104
     

IIIC-1.

Tolman’s rat maze.

116

IIIC-2.

Four point path followed with arm movements or walking.

117

IIIC-3.

Proportions of the human figure (Leonardo Da Vinci).

127

IIIC-4.

Grid of proportions (Le Corbusier).

128

IIIC-5.

Pentagonal body pose (Laban).

129

IIIC-6.

Planar quadrangle network.

129

IIIC-7.

Tetrahedral network.

129

IIIC-8.

Octahedral net.

130

IIIC-9.

Cubic net.

130

IIIC-10.

Rectangle-shaped Cartesian Planes.

131

IIIC-11.

Linked corners of Cartesian planes builds an icosahedral net.

132

IIIC-12.

Higher-order octahedral and lower-order tetrahedral nets.

133
     

IIID-1.

Translatory symmetry.

141

IIID-2.

Reflection symmetry.

145

IIID-3.

Rotational symmetry.

148

IIID-4.

Labanotation symbols for reflection symmetries.

154

IIID-5.

Labanotation symbols for rotational symmetries.

155

IIID-6.

Proposed symbol for an “item”.

158

IIID-7.

Proposed general symbol for symmetry.

158

IIID-8.

Proposed symbols for symmetry transformations.

159

IIID-9.

Notation for body transference.

160

IIID-10.

Notation symbols for specific reflections.

160

IIID-11.

Notation symbols for specific size scaling.

161

IIID-12.

Notation symbols for rotational transformations.

161

IIID-13.

Symmetry notation for en croix..

161

IIID-14.

Symmetry notation for transfer from the hand to the leg.

161

IIID-15.

Symmetry within the “A-scale”.

162

IVA-1.

Three levels.

165

IVA-2.

Shapes of symbols for nine directions in each level.

165

IVA-3.

Direction symbols.

166

IVA-4.

Dots as motion between two directional points.

167

IVA-5.

Vector symbols.

167

IVA-6.

Free inclination symbols.

168

IVA-7.

Direction of the progression symbols.

168

IVA-8.

Notation for . . . approaching a particular point.

168

IVA-9.

End-points of the dimensional cross form an octahedron.

171

IVA-10.

End-points of the diagonal cross form a cube.

173

IVA-11.

Square plane, edge ratio 1:1.

173

IVA-12.

Rectangular plane, edge ratio 1.618:1.

174

IVA-13.

End-points of primary deflected diameters form a cuboctahedron.

175

IVA-14,

Cuboctahedron derived by joining the cubic edge mid-points.

175

IVA-15.

End-points of modified diameters form an icosahedron.

176

IVA-16.

“Personal square” for orientation of body facing.

199

IVA-17.

Dimensional reference lines in ballet “theory of design”.

200

IVA-18.

Shape of the normal working area in the horizontal plane.

217

IVA-19.

Horizontal, frontal, and paramedial kinetospheric cross-sections.

218
     

IVB-1.

Higher-order pose configurations.

237

IVB-2.

Higher-order curved pose . . .

238

IVB-3.

Feuillet’s pathways: straight, open, round, waving, and beaten.

243

IVB-4.

Hierarchical path-form taxonomy (Preston-Dunlop, 1980).

245

IVB-5.

Hierarchical path-form taxonomy (Eshkol and Wachmann, 1958).

247

IVB-6.

Seven-link movable chain.

251

IVB-7.

Overhand knot.

253

IVB-8.

Three-part knot.

253

IVB-9.

Icosahedral planar sequence as 9-part plastic knot.

254

IVB-10.

Dimensional sequence as 6-part knot.

255

IVB-11.

Forms and orientations of the sixteen kinespheric-items.

275

IVB-12.

Relationship between . . . intertrial repetitions.

279





List of Tables
Volume One

Table IV-1.

Examples of dimensional notations.

170

Table IV-2.

Examples of diagonal notations.

172

Table IV-3.

Modified diameter end-points.

174

Table IV-4.

Notations of cuboctahedral diameters.

176

Table IV-5.

Symbols for cuboctahedral and icosahedral diameters.

177

Table IV-6.

Notations of icosahedral diameters.

177

Table IV-7.

Secondary deflections (cuboctahedral inclinations).

179

Table IV-8.

Tertiary deflections, (icosahedral inclinations).

180

Table IV-9.

Steep deflections of diagonal up-right-forward.

182

Table IV-10.

Six test-pairs which approached significance.

226

Table IV-11.

Performance measures.

278

Table IV-12.

Frequency of occurrence for each of the strongest S-units.

281

Table IV-13.

Kinespheric item orientation and number of F-unit occurrences.

283





List of Figures
Volume Two

APX.V-1.

Example of Brooks’ matrix.

77

APX.VI-1.

Pointing . . . with and without prism-glasses.

85

APX.IX-1.

Axis scales (Laban, 1926).

100

APX.IX-2.

Scales combined from primary-directions in four diagonals.

102

APX.IX-3.

Scales combined from primary-directions in four diagonals.

102

APX.IX-4.

Scales combined from primary-directions in four diagonals.

102

APX.IX-5.

Augmented three-rings.

105

APX.IX-6.

Trial notation, pure dimensions.

105

APX.IX-7.

Scales assembled from short peripheral directions.

105

APX.IX-8.

Scales assembled from short peripheral directions.

105

APX.IX-9.

Vector symbols translated . . .

107

APX.X-1.

Shapes of Cartesian planes.

109

APX.X-2.

Constructing the golden rectangle.

110

APX.X-3.

Golden rectangle plus a second square.

110

APX.X-4.

Dodecahedral rectangular plane.

110

APX.X-5.

Exact angles between dimensions and cubic diameters.

111

APX.X-6.

Exact angles between dimensions and octahedral diameters.

111

APX.X-7.

Interpenetrating cubic and octahedral planes.

111

APX.X-8.

Angles between dimensions and dodecahedral diameters.

112

APX.X-9.

Angles between dimensions and icosahedral diameters.

112

APX.XII-1.

Passé.

122

APX.XII-2.

Développé á la quartiéme devant.

124

APX.XII-3.

Renversé (first half).

125

APX.XV-1.

Free-body diagram.

145

APX.XV-2.

Tetrahedral molecular structure of water.

146

APX.XV-3.

Octahedral arrangement of electron paths in a neon atom.

147

APX.XV-4.

Circle packing.

148

APX.XV-5.

Four spheres pack into a tetrahedron.

148

APX.XV-6.

Exterior perceived tension translated into muscular tension.

155




List of Tables
Volume Two
 

Table A.

Reversal. 166
Table B. Direction change. 166
Table C. Direction change with a reversal 167
Table D. Three-phasic cycle. 168
Table E. Four-phasic cycle. 168
Table F. Hip circumduction. 168
Table G. One cycle of elbow-centred spiral. 169
Table H. One cycle of shoulder-centred spiral. 169
Table I. Elbow and shoulder wave. 169
Table J. Elbow and shoulder wave variation. 169
Table K. Hip wave with rotation reversal. 170
Table L. Multi-joint wave with “rotary” pronate/supinate reversal. 170
Table M. Hip figure-8 with rotation reversal. 170
Table N. Multi-joint figure-8 with “rotary” pronate/supinate. 170
Table O. Wrist-forearm figure-8. 171
Table P. Eight-phase continual-cycle figure-8. 171
Table Q. Continual-cycle figure-8 merged into four phases. 172




Acknowledgements



Special thanks to Dr. Valerie Preston-Dunlop for her endless hours of discussion, personal experience and vision of choreutics, and her tireless reading of the rough drafts of this thesis. My participation in her recreation of Laban’s early German dances and her choreutics classes gave inner depth to this thesis. Without her constant and good humored support this research would never have come to completion.
Also thanks to many others for their inestimable assistance. Thanks to Dr. Linda Pring for discussions about the psychological components of this thesis and help with statistics. Thanks to Peter Bassett for making the special collections and equipment available within the Laban Library. Thanks to Michael Lovitt for navigating me through myriad academic regulations. And thanks to Jean Jarrell and Walli Meier for many supportive personal conversations.
Finally, greatest appreciation is given to Dr. Marion North and her opening of the resources of the Laban Centre for Movement and Dance without which this thesis could never have become a reality.

And deepest affection for Sarah, Gundela, Sigred, Stuart, Chandri, Evamaria, Kim, Jen, Angela, Cathy, and Aubergine.


Declaration




I grant powers of discretion to the University Librarian to allow this thesis to be copied in whole or in part without further reference to me. This permission covers only single copies made for study purposes, subject to normal conditions of acknowledgement.




Abstract


The choreutic conception of the spatial aspect of body movements (originated by Rudolf Laban) was reevaluated according to cognitive and motor control research.

“Kinesthetic spatial cognition” (analogous to visual spatial cognition) was identified as the psychological realm of choreutic knowledge. Kinesthesia was identified as arising from sensory receptors throughout the body. Kinesthetic space was defined as spatial information derived from kinesthesia. Kinesthetic spatial cognition was defined as cognitive processes (eg. mental rehearsal) involving kinesthetic spatial knowledge. This concept of kinesthetic spatial cognition has not been heretofore explicitly developed in cognitive science.

Elements of the choreutic conception were psychologically validated since they are also well identified in cognitive and motor research. These include how spatial information is defined relative to a reference system; kinesthetic spatial knowledge is based on a mental code of elemental locations; higher-order networks of locations are collected into map-like spatial images; and many symmetrical operations can be performed. Close similarities were identified between choreutic polyhedral-shaped cognitive maps of the “kinesphere” and the “trajectory formation” model.

A choreutic prototype/deflection hypothesis posits that dimensions and diagonals serve as conceptual prototypes while actual body movement consists of deflections. Similar spatial prototypes were identified in visual spatial cognition, a kinesiological analysis supported the bodily tendency towards deflections, and this concurred with ergonomic measurements of the shape of the workspace. An experiment attempted to identify prototypes in kinesthetic spatial cognition.

Categories of kinesthetic spatial information are distinguished within choreutics and dance. These were reevaluated according to perceptual processes and kinesiology. Choreutic topological forms deflecting across various kinespheric nets are analogous to N. Bernstein’s conception of the “co-ordinational net of the motor field . . . as oscillating like a cobweb in the wind”. An experiment demonstrated that kinesthetic spatial information is organised into cognitive categories and that choreutic material and Labanotation symbols can be advantageously used in experimental research.


Key to Labanotation Direction Symbols

The Labanotation* direction symbols are used within this thesis. They refer to spatial directions as listed here. For further details see Hutchinson (1970), Hutchinson-Guest (1983), Knust (1979a; 1979b), Laban (1975b), and Preston-Dunlop (1969). The direction symbols are also discussed in Section IVA of this thesis.




____________
* Laban originally named this system of movement notation “kinetography” (Knust, 1948a, p. 28), literally “movement-writing”. Other systems of dance/movement notation or kinetography have also been developed (for a review see Hutchinson-Guest, 1989). In order to distinguish Laban’s system it has been referred to as “Laban Kinetography” (Knust, 1948a, 1948b), “kinetography Laban” (Preston-Dunlop, 1969), “Laban Notation” (Laban, 1948, p. 6), or as either “kinetography Laban” or “Labanotation” (Hutchinson, 1970; Knust, 1979a; 1979b). There are some differences between European Kinetography-Laban and American Labanotation, but these are not critical to this thesis. The term “Labanotation” is used here to refer generally to the overall system of body-movement-notation originated by R. Laban and of which the direction symbols are still at the core.